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Sati: mindfulness, non violence and memory

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  • Sati: mindfulness, non violence and memory

    A sad fact for me peope seem to have very little memory these days. Sone high lamas though still have a very good memory dont they as they r trained since young age to remember by heart... Isnt it?

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.010.than.html

    MN 10
    PTS: M i 55
    Satipatthana Sutta: Frames of Reference
    translated from the Pali by
    Thanissaro Bhikkhu
    © 2008–2009
    Alternate translations: Nyanasatta | Soma
    I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in the Kuru country. Now there is a town of the Kurus called Kammasadhamma. There the Blessed One addressed the monks, "Monks."

    "Lord," the monks replied.

    The Blessed One said this: "This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding — in other words, the four frames of reference. Which four?

    "There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings... mind... mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

    A. Body
    "And how does a monk remain focused on the body in & of itself?

    [1] "There is the case where a monk — having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building — sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect and setting mindfulness to the fore [lit: the front of the chest]. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

    "Breathing in long, he discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out long, he discerns that he is breathing out long. Or breathing in short, he discerns that he is breathing in short; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short. He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the entire body and to breathe out sensitive to the entire body. He trains himself to breathe in calming bodily fabrication and to breathe out calming bodily fabrication. Just as a skilled turner or his apprentice, when making a long turn, discerns that he is making a long turn, or when making a short turn discerns that he is making a short turn; in the same way the monk, when breathing in long, discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short... He trains himself to breathe in calming bodily fabrication, and to breathe out calming bodily fabrication.

    "In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or externally on the body in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the body in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a body' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

    [2] "Furthermore, when walking, the monk discerns that he is walking. When standing, he discerns that he is standing. When sitting, he discerns that he is sitting. When lying down, he discerns that he is lying down. Or however his body is disposed, that is how he discerns it.

    "In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally... unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

    [3] "Furthermore, when going forward & returning, he makes himself fully alert; when looking toward & looking away... when bending & extending his limbs... when carrying his outer cloak, his upper robe & his bowl... when eating, drinking, chewing, & savoring... when urinating & defecating... when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, & remaining silent, he makes himself fully alert.

    "In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally... unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

    [4] "Furthermore...just as if a sack with openings at both ends were full of various kinds of grain — wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice — and a man with good eyesight, pouring it out, were to reflect, 'This is wheat. This is rice. These are mung beans. These are kidney beans. These are sesame seeds. This is husked rice,' in the same way, monks, a monk reflects on this very body from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by skin and full of various kinds of unclean things: 'In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine.'

    "In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally... unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

    [5] "Furthermore...just as a skilled butcher or his apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it up into pieces, the monk contemplates this very body — however it stands, however it is disposed — in terms of properties: 'In this body there is the earth property, the liquid property, the fire property, & the wind property.'

    "In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally... unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

    [6] "Furthermore, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground — one day, two days, three days dead — bloated, livid, & festering, he applies it to this very body, 'This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate'...

    "Or again, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground, picked at by crows, vultures, & hawks, by dogs, hyenas, & various other creatures... a skeleton smeared with flesh & blood, connected with tendons... a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, connected with tendons... a skeleton without flesh or blood, connected with tendons... bones detached from their tendons, scattered in all directions — here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here a shin bone, there a thigh bone, here a hip bone, there a back bone, here a rib, there a breast bone, here a shoulder bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth, here a skull... the bones whitened, somewhat like the color of shells... piled up, more than a year old... decomposed into a powder: He applies it to this very body, 'This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate.'

    "In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or externally on the body in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the body in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a body' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

    B. Feelings
    "And how does a monk remain focused on feelings in & of themselves? There is the case where a monk, when feeling a painful feeling, discerns that he is feeling a painful feeling. When feeling a pleasant feeling, he discerns that he is feeling a pleasant feeling. When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he discerns that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.

    "When feeling a painful feeling of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a painful feeling of the flesh. When feeling a painful feeling not of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a painful feeling not of the flesh. When feeling a pleasant feeling of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a pleasant feeling of the flesh. When feeling a pleasant feeling not of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a pleasant feeling not of the flesh. When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the flesh. When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the flesh.

    "In this way he remains focused internally on feelings in & of themselves, or externally on feelings in & of themselves, or both internally & externally on feelings in & of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to feelings, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to feelings, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to feelings. Or his mindfulness that 'There are feelings' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on feelings in & of themselves.

    C. Mind
    "And how does a monk remain focused on the mind in & of itself? There is the case where a monk, when the mind has passion, discerns that the mind has passion. When the mind is without passion, he discerns that the mind is without passion. When the mind has aversion, he discerns that the mind has aversion. When the mind is without aversion, he discerns that the mind is without aversion. When the mind has delusion, he discerns that the mind has delusion. When the mind is without delusion, he discerns that the mind is without delusion.

    "When the mind is constricted, he discerns that the mind is constricted. When the mind is scattered, he discerns that the mind is scattered. When the mind is enlarged, he discerns that the mind is enlarged. When the mind is not enlarged, he discerns that the mind is not enlarged. When the mind is surpassed, he discerns that the mind is surpassed. When the mind is unsurpassed, he discerns that the mind is unsurpassed. When the mind is concentrated, he discerns that the mind is concentrated. When the mind is not concentrated, he discerns that the mind is not concentrated. When the mind is released, he discerns that the mind is released. When the mind is not released, he discerns that the mind is not released.

    "In this way he remains focused internally on the mind in & of itself, or externally on the mind in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the mind in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the mind, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the mind, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the mind. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a mind' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the mind in & of itself.

    D. Mental Qualities
    "And how does a monk remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves?

    [1] "There is the case where a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five hindrances. And how does a monk remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five hindrances? There is the case where, there being sensual desire present within, a monk discerns that 'There is sensual desire present within me.' Or, there being no sensual desire present within, he discerns that 'There is no sensual desire present within me.' He discerns how there is the arising of unarisen sensual desire. And he discerns how there is the abandoning of sensual desire once it has arisen. And he discerns how there is no future arising of sensual desire that has been abandoned. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining hindrances: ill will, sloth & drowsiness, restlessness & anxiety, and uncertainty.)

    "In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or externally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or both internally & externally on mental qualities in & of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to mental qualities, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to mental qualities, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to mental qualities. Or his mindfulness that 'There are mental qualities' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five hindrances.

    [2] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five clinging-aggregates. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five clinging-aggregates? There is the case where a monk [discerns]: 'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance. Such is feeling... Such is perception... Such are fabrications... Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.'

    "In this way he remains focused internally on the mental qualities in & of themselves, or focused externally... unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five clinging-aggregates.

    [3] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal & external sense media. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal & external sense media? There is the case where he discerns the eye, he discerns forms, he discerns the fetter that arises dependent on both. He discerns how there is the arising of an unarisen fetter. And he discerns how there is the abandoning of a fetter once it has arisen. And he discerns how there is no future arising of a fetter that has been abandoned. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining sense media: ear, nose, tongue, body, & intellect.)

    "In this way he remains focused internally on the mental qualities in & of themselves, or focused externally... unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal & external sense media.

    [4] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the seven factors for Awakening. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the seven factors for Awakening? There is the case where, there being mindfulness as a factor for Awakening present within, he discerns that 'Mindfulness as a factor for Awakening is present within me.' Or, there being no mindfulness as a factor for Awakening present within, he discerns that 'Mindfulness as a factor for Awakening is not present within me.' He discerns how there is the arising of unarisen mindfulness as a factor for Awakening. And he discerns how there is the culmination of the development of mindfulness as a factor for Awakening once it has arisen. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining factors for Awakening: analysis of qualities, persistence, rapture, serenity, concentration, & equanimity.)

    "In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or externally... unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the seven factors for Awakening.

    [5] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the four noble truths. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the four noble truths? There is the case where he discerns, as it has come to be, that 'This is stress.' He discerns, as it has come to be, that 'This is the origination of stress.' He discerns, as it has come to be, that 'This is the cessation of stress.' He discerns, as it has come to be, that 'This is the way leading to the cessation of stress.' 1

    "In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or externally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or both internally & externally on mental qualities in & of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to mental qualities, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to mental qualities, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to mental qualities. Or his mindfulness that 'There are mental qualities' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the four noble truths...

    E. Conclusion
    "Now, if anyone would develop these four frames of reference in this way for seven years, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either gnosis right here & now, or — if there be any remnant of clinging/sustenance — non-return.

    "Let alone seven years. If anyone would develop these four frames of reference in this way for six years... five... four... three... two years... one year... seven months... six months... five... four... three... two months... one month... half a month, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either gnosis right here & now, or — if there be any remnant of clinging/sustenance — non-return.

    "Let alone half a month. If anyone would develop these four frames of reference in this way for seven days, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either gnosis right here & now, or — if there be any remnant of clinging/sustenance — non-return.

    "'This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding — in other words, the four frames of reference.' Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said."

    That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.

    Note
    1.
    For an elaboration on the four noble truths see DN 22, which is otherwise identical to this sutta.


    http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn47/sn47.040.than.html

    SN 47.40
    PTS: S v 183
    CDB ii 1659
    Satipatthana-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of the Frames of Reference
    translated from the Pali by
    Thanissaro Bhikkhu
    © 1997–2009
    "I will teach you the frames of reference, their development, and the path of practice leading to their development. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak.

    "Now, what are the frames of reference? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of themselves... mind in & of itself... mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

    "This is called the frames of reference.

    "And what is the development of the frames of reference? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, remains focused on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, remains focused on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

    "He remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to feelings, remains focused on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to feelings, remains focused on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to feelings — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

    "He remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the mind, remains focused on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the mind, remains focused on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the mind — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

    "He remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to mental qualities, remains focused on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to mental qualities, remains focused on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to mental qualities — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

    "This is called the development of the frames of reference.

    "And what is the path of practice to the development of the frames of reference? Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort

  • #2
    http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/

    Anussati

    Anussati (f.) [Sk. anusmل¹›ti, fr. anu + smل¹›, cp. sati] remembrance, recollection, thinking of, mindfulness. A late list of subjects to be kept in mind comprises six anussati -- ل¹­ل¹­hؤپnؤپni, viz. Buddhaثڑ, Dhammaثڑ, Sanghaثڑ, sؤ«laثڑ, cؤپgaثڑ, devatؤپثڑ, i. e. proper attention to the Buddha, the Doctrines, the Church, to morality, charity, the gods. Thus at D iii. 250, 280 (cp. A i. 211); A iii. 284, 312 sq., 452; v. 329 sq.; Ps i. 28. Expanded to 10 subjects (the above plus ؤپnؤپpؤپna -- sati, maraل¹‡a -- sati, kؤپyagatؤپ -- sati, upasamأ¢nussati) at A i. 30, 42 (cp. Lal. Vist 34). For other references see D i. 81; S v. 67 = It 107 (anussaraل¹‡a at latter pass.); A iii. 284, 325, 452. Ps i. 48, 95, 186; Pug 25, 60; Dhs 14, 23, 1350 (anussati here to be corr. to asati, see Dhs. trsl. 351); Sdhp. 225, 231, 482. See also anuttariya (anussat -- أ¢nuttariya).



    Asatiyā


    Asatiyā (adv.) [instr. of a + sati] heedlessly, unintentionally J iii. 486.



    Asmasati


    Asmasati [spurious form for the usual assasati = Sk. āśva- sati] to trust, to rely on J v. 56 (Pot. asmase).



    Ānāpāna


    Ānāpāna (nt.) [āna + apāna, cpds. of an to breathe] in haled & exhaled breath, inspiration & respiration S v. 132,


    -- 101 --
    311 sq.; J i. 58; Ps i. 162 (˚kathā); usually in cpd. ˚sati concentration by in -- breathing & out -- breathing (cp. Man. of Mystic 70) M i. 425 (cp. D ii. 291); iii. 82; Vin iii. 70; A i. 30; It 80; Ps i. 166, 172, 185 (˚samādhi); Nd 2 466 B (id.); Miln 332; Vism 111, 197, 266 sq.; SnA 165. See detail under sati



    Taį¹‡hÄ


    Taį¹‡hÄ (f.) [Sk. tį¹›į¹£į¹‡Ä, besides tarÅ›a (m.) & į¹­į¹›į¹£ (f.)=Av. tarÅ›na thirst, Gr. tarsi/a dryness, Goth. paĆŗrsus, Ohg. durst, E. drought & thirst; to *ters to be, or to make dry in Gr. te/rsomai , Lat. torreo to roast, Goth. gapaĆ­rsan, Ohg. derren. -- Another form of t. is tasiį¹‡Ä] lit. drought, thirst; fig. craving, hunger for, excitement, the fever of unsatisfied longing (c. loc.: kabaįø·inkÄre ÄhÄre "thirst" for solid food S ii. 101 sq.; cÄ«vare piį¹‡įø¨apÄte taį¹‡hÄ=greed for Sn 339). Opp d to peace of mind (upekhÄ, santi). -- A. Literal meaning: khudÄya taį¹‡hÄya ca khajjamÄnÄ tormented by hunger & thirst Pv ii. 1 5 (=pipÄsÄya PvA 69). -- B. In its secondary meaning: taį¹‡hÄ is a state of mind that leads to rebirth. Plato puts a similar idea into the mouth of Socrates (Phaedo 458, 9). Neither the Greek nor the Indian thinker has thought it necessary to explain how this effect is produced. In the Chain of Causation (D ii. 34) we are told how Taį¹‡hÄ arises -- when the sense organs come into contact with the outside world there follow sensation and feeling, & these (if, as elsewhere stated, there is no mastery over them) result in Taį¹‡hÄ. In the First Proclamation (S v. 420 ff.; Vin i. 10) it is said that Taį¹‡hÄ, the source of sorrow, must be rooted out by the way there laid down, that is by the Aryan Path. Only then can the ideal life be lived. Just as physical thirst arises of itself, and must be assuaged, got rid of, or the body dies; so the mental "thirst," arising from without, becomes a craving that must be rooted out, quite got rid of, or there can be no NibbÄna. The figure is a strong one, and the word Taį¹‡hÄ is found mainly in poetry, or in prose passages charged with religious emotion. It is rarely used in the philosophy or the psychology. Thus in the long Enumeration of Qualities (Dhs), Taį¹‡hÄ occurs in one only out of the 1,366 sections (Dhs 1059), & then only as one of many subordinate phases of lobha. Taį¹‡hÄ binds a man to the chain of SaÅ‹sÄra, of being reborn & dying again & again (2 b ) until Arahantship or NibbÄna is attained, taį¹‡hÄ destroyed, & the cause alike of sorrow and of future births removed (2 c ). In this sense NibbÄna is identical with "sabbupadhi -- paį¹­inissaggo taį¹‡hakkhayo virÄgo nirodho" (see NibbÄna). -- 1. Systematizations: The 3 aims of t. kÄmaĖ, bhavaĖ, vibhavaĖ, that is craving for sensuous pleasure, for rebirth (anywhere, but especially in heaven), or for no rebirth; cp. Vibhava. These three aims are mentioned already in the First Proclamation (S v. 420; Vin i. 10) and often afterwards D ii. 61, 308; iii. 216, 275; S iii. 26, 158; It 50; Ps i. 26, 39; ii. 147; Vbh 101, 365; Nett 160. Another group of 3 aims of taį¹‡hÄ is given as kÄmaĖ, rÅ«paĖ & arÅ«paĖ at D iii. 216; Vbh 395; & yet another as rÅ«paĖ, arÅ«paĖ & nirodhaĖ at D iii. 216. -- The source of t. is said to be sixfold as founded on & relating to the 6 bÄhirÄni ÄyatanÄni (see rÅ«pa), objects of sense or sensations, viz. sights, sounds, smells, etc.: D ii. 58; Ps i. 6 sq.; Nd 2 271 i ; in threefold aspects (as kÄma -- taį¹‡hÄ, bhavaĖ & vibhavaĖ) with relation to the 6 senses discussed at Vism 567 sq.; also under the term cha -- taį¹‡ha -- kÄyÄ (sixfold group, see cpds.) M i. 51; iii. 280; Ps i. 26; elsewhere called chadvÄrika -- taį¹‡hÄ "arising through the 6 doors" DhA iii. 286. -- 18 varieties of t. (comprising worldly objects of enjoyment, ease, comfort & well-living are enum d at Nd 2 271 iii (under taį¹‡hÄ -- lepa). 36 kinds: 18 referring to sensations (illusions) of subjective origin (ajjhattikassa upÄdÄya), & 18 to sensations affecting the individual in objective quality (bÄhirassa upÄdÄya) at A ii. 212; Nett 37; & 108 varieties or specifications of t. are given at Nd 2 271 ii (under JappÄ)=Dhs 1059=Vbh 361. -- Taį¹‡hÄ as "kusalÄ pi akusalÄ pi" (good & bad) occurs at Nett 87; cp. TÄlapuį¹­a's good t. Th i. 1091 f. -- 2. Import of the term: (a) various characterizations of t.: mahÄĖ Sn 114; kÄmaĖ S i. 131; gedhaĖ S i. 15; bhavaĖ D iii. 274 (+avijjÄ); grouped with diį¹­į¹­hi (wrong views) Nd 2 271 iii , 271 vi . T. fetters the world & causes misery: "yÄya ayaÅ‹ loko uddhasto pariyonaddho tantÄkulajÄto" A ii. 211 sq.; taį¹‡hÄya jÄyatÄ« soko taį¹‡hÄya jÄyatÄ« bhayaÅ‹ taį¹‡hÄya vippamuttassa natthi soko kuto bhayaÅ‹ Dh 216; taį¹‡hÄya uįø¨įø¨ito loko S i. 40; yaÅ‹ loke piyarÅ«paÅ‹ sÄtarÅ«paÅ‹ etth' esÄ taį¹‡hÄ . . . Vbh 103; it is the 4th constituent of MÄra's army (M -- senÄ) Sn 436; M's daughter, S i. 134. In comparisons: t.+jÄlinÄ« visattikÄ S i. 107; =bharĆ¢dÄnaÅ‹ (t. ponobbhavikÄ nandirÄga -- sahagatÄ) S iii 26; v. 402: gaį¹‡įø¨a=kÄya, gaį¹‡įø¨amÅ«lan ti taį¹‡hÄy' etaÅ‹ adhivacanaÅ‹ S iv. 83;=sota S iv. 292 (and a khÄ«į¹‡Äsavo=chinnasoto); manujassa pamatta -- cÄrino t. vaįø¨įø¨hati mÄluvÄ viya Dh 334. -- (b) taį¹‡hÄ as the inciting factor of rebirth & incidental cause of saÅ‹sÄra: kammaÅ‹ khettaÅ‹ viƱƱÄį¹‡aÅ‹ bÄ«jaÅ‹ taį¹‡hÄ sineho . . . evaÅ‹ ÄyatiÅ‹ punabbhavĆ¢bhinibbatti hoti A i. 223; t. ca avasesÄ ca kilesÄ: ayaÅ‹ vuccati dukkha -- samudayo Vbh 107, similarly Nett 23 sq.; as ponobbhavikÄ (causing rebirth) S iii. 26; Ps ii. 147, etc.; as a link in the chain of interdependent causation (see paį¹­iccasamuppÄda): vedanÄ -- paccayÄ taį¹‡hÄ, taį¹‡hÄ -- paccayÄ upÄdÄnaÅ‹ Vin i. 1, 5; D ii. 31, 33, 56, etc.; t. & upadhi: taį¹‡hÄya sati upadhi hoti t. asati up. na hoti S ii. 108; ye taį¹‡haÅ‹ vaįø¨įø¨henti te upadhiÅ‹ vaįø¨įø¨henti, etc. S ii. 109; taį¹‡hÄya nÄ«yati loko taį¹‡hÄya parikissati S i. 39; taį¹‡hÄ saÅ‹yojanena saÅ‹yuttÄ sattÄ dÄ«gharattaÅ‹ sandhÄvanti saÅ‹saranti It 8. See also t. -- dutiya. -- (c) To have got rid of t. is Arahantship: vigata -- taį¹‡ha vigata -- pipÄsa vigata -- pariįø·Äha D iii. 238; S iii. 8, 107 sq., 190; samÅ«laÅ‹ taį¹‡haÅ‹ abbuyha S i. 16=63, 121 (Godhiko parinibbuto); iii. 26 (nicchÄto parinibbuto); vÄ«taĖ Sn 83, 849, 1041 (+nibbuta); taį¹‡hÄya vippahÄnena S i. 39 ("NibbÄnan" iti vuccati), 40 (sabbaÅ‹ chindati bandhanaÅ‹); taį¹‡haÅ‹ mÄ kÄsi mÄ lokaÅ‹ punar Ägami Sn 339; taį¹‡haÅ‹ pariƱƱÄya . . . te narÄ oghatiį¹‡į¹‡Ä ti Sn 1082; ucchinna -- bhava -- taį¹‡hÄ Sn 746; taį¹‡hÄya vÅ«pasama S iii. 231; t. -- nirodha S iv. 390. -- See also M i. 51; Dh 154; It 9 (vitaĖ+anÄdÄna), 50 (ĖÅ‹ pahantvÄna); Sn 495, 496, 916; & cp. Ėkhaya. -- 3. Kindred terms which in Commentaries are expl d by one of the taį¹‡hÄ -- formulae (cp. Nd 2 271 v & 271 vii ): (a) t. in groups of 5: ( a ) with kilesa saÅ‹yoga vipÄka duccarita; ( b ) diį¹­į¹­hi kilesa duccarita avijjÄ; ( g ) diį¹­į¹­hi kilĖ kamma duccarita. -- (b) quasi -- synonyms: ÄdÄna, ejÄ, gedha, jappÄ, nandÄ«, nivesana, pariįø·Äha, pipÄsÄ, lepa, loluppa, vÄna, visattikÄ, sibbanÄ«. -- In cpds. the form taį¹‡hÄ is represented by taį¹‡ha before double consonants, as taį¹‡hakkhaya, etc.
    -- Ć¢dhipateyya mastery over t. S iii. 103; -- Ć¢dhipanna seized by t. S. i. 29; Sn 1123; -- ÄdÄsa the mirror of t. A ii. 54; Ć¢bhinivesa full of t. PvA 267; -- Äluka greedy J ii. 78; -- uppÄdÄ (pl.) (four) grounds of the rise of craving (viz. cÄ«vara, piį¹‡įø¨apÄta, senĆ¢sana, itibhavĆ¢bhava) A ii. 10=It 109; D iii. 228; Vbh 375; -- kÄyÄ (pl.) (six) groups of t. (see above B i ) S ii. 3; D iii. 244. 280; Ps i. 26; Vbh 380; -- kkhaya the destruction of the


    -- 295 --
    excitement of cravings, almost synonymous with NibbÄna (see above B2c): Ėrata Dh 187 (expl d at DhA iii. 241: arahatte c' eva nibbÄne ca abhirato hoti); <-> Vv 73 5 (expl d by NibbÄna VvA 296); therefore in the expositionary formula of NibbÄna as equivalent with N. Vin i. 5; S iii. 133; It 88, etc. (see N.). In the same sense: sabbaƱjaho taį¹‡hakkhaye vimutto Vin i. 8= M i. 171=Dh 353; taį¹‡hÄkkhaya virÄga nirodha nibbÄna A ii. 34, expl d at Vism 293; bhikkhu arahaÅ‹ cha į¹­hÄnÄni adhimutto hoti: nekkhammĆ¢dhimutto, pavivekaĖ, avyÄpajjhaĖ, upÄdÄnakkhayaĖ, taį¹‡hakkhayaĖ, asammohaĖ Vin i. 183; cp. also Sn 70, 211, 1070, 1137; -- gata obsessed with excitement, i. e. a victim of t. Sn 776; -- gaddula the leash of t. Nd 2 271 ii ā‰; -- cchida breaking the cravings Sn 1021, 1101; -- jÄla the snare of t. M i. 271; Th 1, 306; Nd 2 271 ii ; -- dutiya who has the fever or excitement of t. as his companion A ii. 10= It 9=109=Sn 740, 741=Nd 2 305; cp. Dhs. trsl. p. 278; -- nadÄ« the river of t. Nd 2 271 ii ; cp. nadiyÄ soto ti: taį¹‡hÄy' etaÅ‹ adhivacanaÅ‹ It 114; -- nighÄtana the destruction of t. Sn 1085; -- pakkha the party of t., all that belongs to t. Nett 53, 69, 88, 160; -- paccaya caused by t. Sn p. 144; Vism 568; -- mÅ«laka rooted in t. (dhammÄ: 9 items) Ps i. 26, 130; Vbh 390; -- lepa cleaving to t. Nd 2 271 iii ; (+diį¹­į¹­hi -- lepa); -- vasika being in the power of t. J iv. 3; -- vicarita a thought of t. A ii. 212; -- sankhaya (complete) destruction of t.; Ėsutta M i. 251 (cÅ«įø·aĖ), 256 (mahÄĖ): Ėvimutti salvation through cessation of t. M i. 256, 270, & Ėvimutta (adj.) S iv. 391; -- samudda the ocean of t. Nd 271 ii ; -- sambhÅ«ta produced by t. (t. ayaÅ‹ kÄyo) A ii. 145 (cp. Sn p. 144; yaÅ‹ kiƱci dukkhaÅ‹ sambhoti sabbaÅ‹ taį¹‡hÄpaccayÄ); -- saÅ‹yojana the fetter of t. (adj.) fettered, bound by t., in phrase t. -- saÅ‹yojanena saÅ‹yuttÄ sattÄ dÄ«gharattaÅ‹ sandhÄvanti saÅ‹saranti It 8, & t. -- saÅ‹yojanÄnaÅ‹ sattÄnaÅ‹ sandhÄvataÅ‹ saÅ‹sarataÅ‹ S ii. 178= iii. 149= PvA 166; A i. 223; -- salla the sting or poisoned arrow of t. S i. 192 (Ėassa hantÄraÅ‹ vande ÄdiccabandhunaÅ‹), the extirpation of which is one of the 12 achievements of a mahesi Nd 2 503 (Ėassa abbuįø·hana; cp. above).

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    Mussati


    Mussati [=mṛṣ, mṛṣyati; to which musā "wrongly," quite diff. in origin fr. micchā: mṛṣā>mithyā. Dhtm 437 defines by "sammose," i. e. forgetfulness] v. intrs.: to forget, to pass into oblivion, to become bewildered, to become careless D i. 19 (sati m.); J v. 369 (id.); Sn 815 (=nassati SnA 536;=parimussati, paribāhiro hoti Nd 1 144). -- pp. muṭṭha. Cpp. pa˚, pari˚.



    Sata


    Sata 2 [pp. of sarati, of smṛ, cp. BSk. smṛta AvŚ i. 228; ii. 197] remembering, mindful, conscious D i. 37; ii. 94; iii. 49, 107, 222, 269; M i. 520 (su -- ssata & dus -- sata); S iv. 211; A iii. 169 (+sampajāna), 325; iv. 311; Sn 741; Dhs 163; DA i. 211. -- satokārin cultivator of sati Ps i. 175.



    Sati


    Sati (f.) [Vedic smṛti: see etym. under sarati 2 ] memory, recognition, consciousness, D i. 180; ii. 292; Miln 77 -- 80; intentness of mind, wakefulness of mind, mindfulness, alertness, lucidity of mind, self -- possession, conscience, self -- consciousness D i. 19; iii. 31, 49, 213, 230, 270 sq.; A i. 95; Dhs 14; Nd 1 7; Tikp 61; VbhA 91; DhsA 121; Miln 37; upaṭṭhitā sati presence of mind D iii. 252, 282, 287; S ii. 231; A ii. 6, 218; iii. 199; iv. 232; It 120; parimukhaŋ satiŋ upaṭṭhāpetuŋ to surround oneself with watchfulness of mind M iii. 89; Vin i. 24, satiŋ paccupaṭṭhāpetuŋ to preserve self -- possession J i. 112; iv. 215; kāyagatā sati intentness of mind on the body, realization of the impermanency of all things M iii. 89; A i. 43; S i. 188; Miln 248; 336; muṭṭhasati forgetful, careless D iii. 252, 282; maraṇasati mindfulness as to death A iv. 317 sq.; J iv. 216; SnA 54; PvA 61, 66. asati not thinking of, forgetfulness DhsA 241; instr. asatiyā through forgetfulness, without thinking of it, not intentionally Vin ii. 289 2 . sati (sammā˚) is one of the constituents of the 8 -- fold Ariyan Path (e g. A iii. 141 sq.; VbhA 120): see magga 2.
    -- âdhipateyya (sat˚) dominant mindfulness A ii. 243 sq.; It 40. -- indriya the sense, faculty, of mindfulness A ii. 149; Dhs 14. -- uppāda arising, production of recollection J i. 98; A ii. 185; M i. 124. -- ullapakāyika, a class of devas S i. 16 sq. -- paṭṭhāna [BSk. smṛty'upasthāna Divy 126, 182, 208] intent contemplation and mindfulness, earnest thought, application of mindfulness; there are four satipaṭṭhānas, referring to the body, the sensations, the mind, and phenomena respectively, D ii. 83, 290 sq.; iii. 101 sq., 127, 221; M i. 56, 339; ii. 11 etc.; A ii. 218; iii. 12; iv. 125 sq., 457 sq.; v. 175; S iii. 96, 153; v. 9, 166; Dhs 358; Kvu 155 (cp. Kvu. trsl n 104 sq.); Nd 1 14, 45, 325, 340; Vism 3; VbhA 57, 214 sq., 417. -- See on term e. g. Cpd. 179; and in greater detail Dial. ii. 322 sq. -- vinaya disciplinary proceeding under appeal to the accused monk's own conscience Vin i. 325; ii. 79 etc.; M ii. 247; A i. 99. -- vepullappatta having attained a clear conscience Vin ii. 79. -- saŋvara restraint in mindfulness Vism 7; DhsA 351; SnA 8. -- sampajañña mindfulness and self -- possession D i. 70; A ii. 210; DA i. 183 sq. -- sambojjhanga (e. g. S v. 90) see (sam)bojjhanga. -- sammosa loss of mindfulness or memory, lack of concentration or attention D i. 19; Vin ii. 114; DA i. 113; Pug 32; Vism 63; Miln 266.



    Satimant


    Satimant (adj.) [fr. sati] mindful, thoughtful, contempla- tive, pensive; nom. sg. satimā D i. 37; S i. 126; Sn 174; A ii. 35; Dhs 163; DhA iv. 117; Pv iv. 3 44 ; satīmā (in verse) Sn 45; nt. satīmaŋ Sn 211; gen. satimato S i. 208; satīmato S i. 81; Dh 24; nom. pl. satīmanto D ii. 120; Dh 91; DhA ii. 170; gen. satīmataŋ Dh 181; It 35; satimantānaŋ A i. 24. -- See also D iii. 77, 141, 221 sq.; A iv. 4, 38, 300 sq., 457 sq.; Nd 1 506; Nd 2 629



    Satī


    Satī (f.) [fr. sant, ppr. of as] 1. being J iii. 251. -- 2. a good or chaste woman Abhp 237; asatī an unchaste woman Miln 122=J iii. 350; J v. 418; vi. 310.



    Peta


    Peta [pp of pa+ī, lit. gone past, gone before] dead, departed, the departed spirit. The Buddhistic peta represents the Vedic pitaraḥ (manes, cp. pitṛyajña), as well as the Brāhmaṇic preta. The first are souls of the "fathers," the second ghosts, leading usually a miserable existence as the result (kammaphala) or punishment of some former misdeed (usually avarice). They may be raised in this existence by means of the dakkhiṇā (sacrificial gift) to a higher category of mahiddhikā petā (alias yakkhas), or after their period of expiation shift into another form of existence (manussa, deva, tiracchāna). The punishment in the Nirayas is included in the peta existence. Modes of suffering are given S ii. 255; cp K.S. ii, 170 p. On the whole subject see Stede, Die Gespenstergeschichten des Peta Vatthu, Leipzig 1914; in the Peta Vatthu the unhappy ghosts are represented, whereas the Vimāna Vatthu deals with the happy ones. -- 1. (souls of the departed, manes) D iii. 189 (petānaŋ kālakatānaŋ dakkhiṇaŋ anupadassati); A iii. 43 (id.); i. 155 sq.; v. 132 (p. ñātisalohita); M i. 33; S i. 61=204; Sn 585, 590, 807 (petā -- kālakatā=matā Nd 1 126); J v. 7 (=mata C.); Pv i. 5 7 ; i. 12 1 ; ii. 6 10 . As pubba -- peta ("deceased -- before") at A ii. 68; iii. 45; iv. 244; J ii. 360. -- 2. (unhappy ghosts) S ii. 255 sq.; Vin iv. 269 (contrasted with purisa, yakkha & tiracchāna -- gata); A v. 269 (dānaŋ petānaŋ upakappati); J iv. 495 sq. (yakkhā pisācā petā, cp. preta -- piśācayoḥ MBhār. 13, 732); Vbh 412 sq.; Sdhp 96 sq. -- manussapeta a ghost in human form J iii. 72; v. 68; VvA 23. The later tradition on Petas in their var. classes and states is reflected in Miln 294 (4 classes: vantāsikā, khuppipāsā, nijjhāma -- taṇhikā, paradatt' ûpajīvino) & 357 (appearance and fate); Vism 501=VbhA 97 (as state of suffering, with narakā, tiracchā, asurā); VbhA 455 (as nijjhāmataṇhikā, khuppipāsikā, paradatt' upajīvino). <-> 3. (happy ghosts) mahiddhikā petī Pv i. 10 1 ; yakkha mahiddhika Pv iv. 1 54 ; Vimānapeta mahiddhika PvA 145; peta mahiddhika PvA 217. [Cp. BSk. pretamahardhika Divy 14]. -- f. petī Vin iv. 20; J i. 240; Pv i. 6 2 ; PvA 67 and passim. Vimānapetī PvA 47, 50, 53 and in Vimāna -- vatthu passim.
    -- upapattika born as a peta PvA 119. -- katha (pubba˚) tales (or talk) about the dead (not considered orthodox) D i. 8, cp. DA i. 90; A v. 128. -- kicca duty towards the deceased (i. e. death -- rites) J ii. 5; DhA i. 328. -- rājā king of the Petas (i. e. Yama) J v. 453 (˚visayaŋ na muñcati "does not leave behind the realm of the Petaking"); C. expl s by petayoni and divides the realm into petavisaya and kālakañjaka -- asura -- visaya. -- yoni the peta realm PvA 9, 35, 55, 68, 103 and passim. -- loka the peta world Sdhp 96. -- vatthu a peta or ghost -- story; N. of one (perhaps the latest) of the canonical books belonging to the Suttanta -- Piṭaka KhA 12; DA i. 178 (Ankura˚).





    Dakkhiṇā


    Dakkhiṇā (f.) [Vedic dakṣiṇā to dakṣ as in daśasyati to honour, to consecrate, but taken as f. of dakkhiṇa & by grammarians expl. as gift by the "giving" (i. e. the right) hand with popular analogy to dā to give (dadāti)] a gift, a fee, a donation; a donation given to a "holy" person with ref. to unhappy beings in the Peta existence ("Manes"), intended to induce the alleviation of their sufferings; an intercessional, expiatory offering, "don attributif" (Feer) (see Stede, Peta Vatthu, etc. p. 51 sq.; Feer Index to AvŚ p. 480) D i. 51= iii. 66 (d. -- uddhaggikā), cp. A ii. 68 (uddhaggā d.); A iii. 43, 46, 178, 259; iv. 64 sq., 394; M iii. 254 sq. (cuddasa pāṭipuggalikā d. given to 14 kinds of worthy recipients) Sn 482, 485; It 19; J i. 228; Pv i. 4 4 (=dāna PvA 18), i. 5 9 (petānaŋ d ˚ŋ dajjā), iv. 1 51 ; Miln 257; Vism 220; PvA 29, 50, 70, 110 (pūjito dakkhiṇāya). guru -- d. teacher's fee VvA 229, 230; dakkhiṇaŋ ādisati (otherwise uddisati) to designate a gift to a particular person (with dat.) Vin i. 229=D ii. 88.
    -- âraha a worthy recipient of a dedicatory gift Pv ii. 8 6 ; -- odaka water to wash in (orig. water of dedication, consecrated water) J i. 118; iv. 370; DhA i. 112; PvA 23; -- visuddhi. purity of a gift M iii. 256 sq.=A ii. 80 sq.=D iii. 231, cp. Kvu 556 sq.



    Ahi


    Ahi [Vedic ahi, with Av. aži perhaps to Lat. anguis etc., see Walde Lat. Wtb. s. v.] a snake Vin ii. 109; D i. 77; S iv. 198; A iii. 306 sq.; iv. 320; v. 289; Nd 1 484; Vism 345 (+ kukkura etc.); VvA 100; PvA 144.
    -- kuṇapa the carcase of a snake Vin iii. 68 = M i. 73 = A iv. 377. -- gāha a snake catcher or trainer J vi. 192. -- guṇṭhika (? reading uncertain, we find as vv. ll. ˚guṇḍika, ˚guṇṭika & ˚kuṇḍika; the BSk. paraphrase is ˚tuṇḍika Divy 497. In view of this uncertainty we are unable to pronounce a safe etymology; it is in all probability a dialectical; may be Non -- Aryan, word. See also under kuṇḍika & guṇṭhika & cp. Morris in J.P.T.S. 1886, 153) a snake charmer J i. 370 (˚guṇḍ˚); ii. 267; iii. 348 (˚guṇḍ˚); iv. 456 (T. ˚guṇṭ; v. l. BB ˚kuṇḍ˚) 308 (T. ˚kuṇḍ˚, v. l. SS ˚guṇṭh˚), 456 (T. ˚guṇṭ˚; v. l. BB ˚kuṇḍ); vi. 171 (T. ˚guṇḍ˚; v. l. BB ˚kuṇḍ˚); Miln 23, 305. -- chattaka (nt.) "a snake's parasol", a mushroom D iii. 87; J ii. 95; Ud 81 (C. on viii. 5, 1). -- tuṇḍika = ˚guṇṭhika Vism 304, 500. -- peta a Peta in form of a snake DhA ii. 63. -- mekhalā "snake -- girdle", i. e. outfit or appearance of a snake DhA i. 139. -- vātaka ( -- roga) N. of a certain disease ("snakewind -- sickness") Vin i. 78; J ii. 79; iv. 200; DhA i. 169, 187, 231; iii. 437. -- vijjā "snake -- craft", i. e. fortune -- telling or sorcery by means of snakes D i. 9 (= sappa -- daṭṭhatikicchana -- vijjā c ɔ eva sapp ɔ avhāyana -- vijjā ea "the art of healing snake bites as well as the invocation of snakes (for magic purposes)" DA i. 93).



    Amānusa


    Amānusa (adj.) [Vedic amānuṣa, usually of demons, but also of gods; a + mānusa, cp. amanussa] non -- or superhuman, unhuman, demonic, peculiar to a non -- human (Peta or Yakkha) Pv ii. 12 20 (kāma); iv. 1 57 (as n.); iv. 3 6 (gandha, of Petas). -- f. ˚ī Dh 373 (rati = dibbā rati DhA iv. 110); Pv iii. 7 9 (ratti, love).



    Petattana


    Petattana (nt.) [abstr. fr. peta] state or condition of a Peta Th 1, 1128.





    Asura


    Asura [Vedic asura in more comprehensive meaning; con- nected with Av. ahurō Lord, ahurō mazdā˚; perhaps to Av. anhuš & Lat. erus master] a fallen angel, a Titan; pl. asurā the Titans, a class of mythological beings. Dhpāla at PvA 272 & the C. on J v. 186 define them as kāḷakañjaka -- bhedā asurā. The are classed with other similar inferior deities, e. g. with garuḷā, nāgā, yakkhā at Miln 117; with supaṇṇā, gandhabbā, yakkhā at DA i. 51. <-> The fight between Gods & Titans is also reflected in the oldest books of the Pāli Canon and occurs in identical description at the foll. passages under the title of devâsura -- sangāma: D ii. 285; S i. 222 (cp. 216 sq.), iv. 201 sq., v. 447; M i. 253; A iv. 432. -- Rebirth as an Asura is considered as one of the four unhappy rebirths or evil fates after death (apāyā; viz. niraya, tiracchāna -- yoni, petā or pettivisaya, asurā), e. g. at It 93; J v. 186; Pv iv. 11 1 , see also apāya. -- Other passages in general: S i. 216 sq. (fight of Devas & Asuras); iv. 203; A ii. 91; iv. 198 sq., 206; Sn 681; Nd 1 89, 92, 448; DhA i. 264 (˚kaññā); Sdhp 366, 436.
    -- inda Chief or king of the Titans. Several Asuras are accredited with the rôle of leaders, most commonly Vepacitti (S i. 222; iv. 201 sq.) and Rāhu (A ii. 17, 53; iii. 243). Besides these we find Pahārāda (gloss Mahābhadda) at A iv. 197. -- kāya the body or assembly of the asuras A i. 143; J v. 186; ThA 285. -- parivāra a retinue of Asuras A ii. 91. -- rakkhasā Asuras and Rakkhasas (Rakṣasas) Sn 310 (defined by Bdhgh at SnA 323 as pabbata -- pāda -- nivāsino dānava -- yakkha -- saññitā).





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    Peḷā


    Peḷā [cp. Class. & B. Sk. peṭa, f. peṭī & peṭā, peḍā Divy 251, 365; and the BSk. var. phelā Divy 503; MVastu ii. 465] 1. a (large) basket J iv. 458; vi. 185; Cp. ii. 2 5 ; Miln 23, 282; Vism 304; KhA 46 (peḷāghata, wrong reading, see p. 68 App.); ThA 29. -- 2. a chest (for holding jewelry etc.) Pv iv. 1 42 ; Mhvs 36, 20; DhsA 242 (peḷ -- opamā, of the 4 treasure -- boxes). -- Cp. piṭaka.

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    A


    A -- 1 the prep. ā shortened before double cons., as akko- sati (ā + kruś), akkhāti (ā + khyā), abbahati (ā + bṛh). -- Best to be classed here is the a -- we call expletive. It represents a reduction of ā -- (mostly before liquids and nasals and with single consonant instead of double). Thus anantaka (for ā -- nantaka = nantaka) Vv.80 7 ; amajjapa (for ā -- majjapa = majjapa) J vi. 328; amāpaya (for āmāpaya = māpaya) J vi. 518; apassato (= passantassa) J vi. 552

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    • #3
      Pali
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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      For other uses, see Pali (disambiguation).
      Pali
      Pāḷi
      Pronunciation [paːli]
      Spoken in Cambodia, Bangladesh, India, Laos, Burma, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
      Language extinction No native speakers, used as a literary and liturgical language only
      Language family Indo-European
      Indo-Iranian
      Indo-Aryan
      Pali

      Writing system Brahmi script, Brāhmī-based scripts and Latin alphabet (refer to article)
      Language codes
      ISO 639-1 pi
      ISO 639-2 pli
      ISO 639-3 pli
      This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...


      Pali (ISO 15919/ALA-LC: Pāḷi) is a Middle Indo-Aryan language (or prakrit) of India. It is best known as the language of many of the earliest extant Buddhist scriptures, as collected in the Pāḷi Canon or Tipitaka, and as the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism.

      Contents
      [hide]
      1 Origin and development
      2 Lexicon
      3 Emic views of Pali
      4 Phonology
      4.1 Vowels
      4.2 Consonants
      5 Morphology
      5.1 Nominal inflection
      5.1.1 a-stems
      5.1.2 ā-stems
      5.1.3 i-stems and u-stems
      6 Example of Pali with English translation
      7 Pali and Ardha-Magadhi
      8 Pali and Sanskrit
      8.1 Vowels and diphthongs
      8.2 Consonants
      8.2.1 Sound changes
      8.2.2 Assimilations
      8.2.2.1 General rules
      8.2.2.2 Total assimilation
      8.2.2.2.1 Progressive assimilations
      8.2.2.2.2 Regressive assimilations
      8.2.2.3 Partial and mutual assimilation
      8.2.3 Epenthesis
      8.2.4 Other changes
      8.3 Exceptions
      9 Pali writing
      9.1 Pali alphabet with diacritics
      9.2 Pali transliteration on computers
      9.3 Pali text in ASCII
      10 See also
      11 References
      12 Further reading
      13 External links


      [edit] Origin and development
      The word Pali itself signifies "line" or "(canonical) text", and this name for the language seems to have its origins in commentarial traditions, wherein the "Pāḷi" (in the sense of the line of original text quoted) was distinguished from the commentary or the vernacular following after it on the manuscript page. As such, the name of the language has caused some debate among scholars of all ages; the spelling of the name also varies, being found with both long "ā" [ɑː] and short "a" [a], and also with either a retroflex [ɭ] or non-retroflex [l] "l" sound. To this day, there is no single, standard spelling of the term; all four spellings can be found in textbooks. R.C. Childers translates the word as "series" and states that the language "bears the epithet in consequence of the perfection of its grammatical structure."[1]

      Pali is a literary language of the Prakrit language family. When the canonical texts were written down in Sri Lanka in the first century BCE, Pali stood close to a living language; this is not the case for the commentaries.[2] Despite excellent scholarship on this problem, there is persistent confusion as to the relation of Pāḷi to the vernacular spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, which was located around modern-day Bihār.

      Pali as a Middle Indo-Aryan language is different from Sanskrit not so much with regard to the time of its origin as to its dialectal base, since a number of its morphological and lexical features betray the fact that it is not a direct continuation of Ṛgvedic Vedic Sanskrit; rather it descends from a dialect (or a number of dialects) which was (/were), despite many similarities, different from Ṛgvedic.[3]

      Pali was considered by early Buddhists to be linguistically similar to Old Magadhi or even a direct continuation of that language. Many Theravada sources refer to the Pali language as “Magadhan” or the “language of Magadha.” This identification first appears in the commentaries, and may have been an attempt by Buddhists to associate themselves more closely with the Mauryans. The Buddha taught in Magadha, but the four most important places in his life are all outside of it. It is likely that he taught in several closely related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a very high degree of mutual intelligibilty.

      There is no attested dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan with all the features of Pali. Pali has some commonalities with both the Ashokan inscriptions at Girnar in the West of India, and at Hathigumpha in the East. Similarities to the Western inscription may be misleading, because the inscription suggests that the Ashokan scribe may not have translated the material he received from Magadha into the vernacular of the people there.

      According to Norman, it is likely that the viharas in North India had separate collections of material, preserved in the local dialect. In the early period it is likely that no degree of translation was necessary in communicating this material to other areas. Around the time of Ashoka there had been more linguistic divergence, and an attempt was made to assemble all the material. It is possible that a language quite close to the Pali of the canon emerged as a result of this process as a compromise of the various dialects in which the earliest material had been preserved, and this language functioned as a lingua franca among Eastern Buddhists in India from then on. Following this period, the language underwent a small degree of Sanskritisation (i.e., MIA bamhana -> brahmana, tta -> tva in some cases).[4]

      T.W. Rhys Davids in his book Buddhist India, and Wilhelm Geiger in his book Pali Literature and Language suggested that Pali may have originated as a form of lingua franca or common language of culture among people who used differing dialects in North India, used at the time of the Buddha and employed by him. Another scholar states that at that time it was "a refined and elegant vernacular of all Aryan-speaking people."[5] Modern scholarship has not arrived at a consensus on the issue; there are a variety of conflicting theories with supporters and detractors.[6] After the death of the Buddha, Pali may have evolved among Buddhists out of the language of the Buddha as a new artificial language.[7] Bhikkhu Bodhi, summarizing the current state of scholarship, states that the language is "closely related to the language (or, more likely, the various regional dialects) that the Buddha himself spoke." He goes on to write:

      Scholars regard this language as a hybrid showing features of several Prakrit dialects used around the third century BCE, subjected to a partial process of Sanskritization. While the language is not identical with any the Buddha himself would have spoken, it belongs to the same broad linguistic family as those he might have used and originates from the same conceptual matrix. This language thus reflects the thought-world that the Buddha inherited from the wider Indian culture into which he was born, so that its words capture the subtle nuances of that thought-world.[8]

      Whatever the relationship of the Buddha's speech to Pali, the Canon was eventually transcribed and preserved entirely in it, while the commentarial tradition that accompanied it (according to the information provided by Buddhaghosa) was translated into Sinhalese and preserved in local languages for several generations. R.C. Childers, who held to the theory that Pali was Old Magadhi, wrote: "Had Gautama never preached, it is unlikely that Magadhese would have been distinguished from the many other vernaculars of Hindustan, except perhaps by an inherent grace and strength which make it a sort of Tuscan among the Prakrits."[9]

      However Pali was ultimately supplanted in India by Sanskrit as a literary and religious language following the formulation of Classical Sanskrit by the scholar Panini. In Sri Lanka, Pali is thought to have entered into a period of decline ending around the 4th or 5th Century (as Sanskrit rose in prominence, and simultaneously, Buddhism's adherents increasingly became a smaller portion of the subcontinent), but ultimately survived. The work of Buddhaghosa was largely responsible for its reemergence as an important scholarly language in Buddhist thought. The Visuddhimagga and the other commentaries that Buddhaghosa compiled codified and condensed the Sinhalese commentarial tradition that had been preserved and expanded in Sri Lanka since the 3rd Century BCE.

      Today Pali is studied mainly to gain access to Buddhist scriptures, and is frequently chanted in a ritual context. The secular literature of Pali historical chronicles, medical texts, and inscriptions, is also of great historical importance. The great centers of Pali learning remain in the Theravada nations of South-East Asia: Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Since the 19th century, various societies for the revival of Pali studies in India have promoted awareness of the language and its literature, perhaps most notably the Maha Bodhi Society founded by Anagarika Dhammapala.

      In Europe, the Pali Text Society has been a major force in promoting the study of Pali by Western scholars since its founding in 1881. Based in the United Kingdom, the society publishes romanized Pali editions, along with many English translations of these sources. In 1869, the first Pali Dictionary was published using the research of Robert Caesar Childers, one of the founding members of the Pali Text Society. It was the first Pali translated text in English and was published in 1872. Childers's Dictionary later received the Volney Prize in 1876.

      The Pali Text Society was in part founded to compensate for the very low level of funds allocated to Indology in late 19th century England; incongruously, the English were not nearly so robust in Sanskrit and Prakrit language studies as Germany, Russia and even Denmark. Without the inspiration of colonial holdings such as the former British occupation of Sri Lanka and Burma, institutions such as the Danish Royal Library have built up major collections of Pali manuscripts, and major traditions of Pali studies.

      [edit] Lexicon
      Virtually every word in Pāḷi has cognates in the other Prakritic "Middle Indo-Aryan languages", e.g., the Jain Prakrits. The relationship to earlier Sanskrit (e.g., Vedic language) is less direct and more complicated. Historically, influence between Pali and Sanskrit has been felt in both directions. The Pali language's resemblance to Sanskrit is often exaggerated by comparing it to later Sanskrit compositions – which were written centuries after Sanskrit ceased to be a living language, and are influenced by developments in Middle Indic, including the direct borrowing of a portion of the Middle Indic lexicon; whereas, a good deal of later Pali technical terminology has been borrowed from the vocabulary of equivalent disciplines in Sanskrit, either directly or with certain phonological adaptations.

      Post-canonical Pali also possesses a few loan-words from local languages where Pali was used (e.g. Sri Lankans adding Sinhalese words to Pali). These usages differentiate the Pali found in the Suttapiṭaka from later compositions such as the Pali commentaries on the canon and folklore (e.g., the stories of the Jātaka commentaries), and comparative study (and dating) of texts on the basis of such loan-words is now a specialized field unto itself.

      Pali was not exclusively used to convey the teachings of the Buddha, as can be deduced from the existence of a number of secular texts, such as books of medical science/instruction, in Pali. However, scholarly interest in the language has been focused upon religious and philosophical literature, because of the unique window it opens on one phase in the development of Buddhism.

      [edit] Emic views of Pali
      Although Sanskrit was said, in brahmanical tradition, to be the unchanging language spoken by the gods, in which each word had an inherent significance, this view of language was not shared in the early Buddhist tradition, in which words were only conventional and mutable signs.[10] Neither the Buddha nor his early followers shared the brahmans' reverence for the Vedic language or its sacred texts. This view of language naturally extended to Pali, and may have contributed to its usage (as an approximation or standardization of local Middle Indic dialects) in place of Sanskrit. However, by the time of the compilation of the Pali commentaries (4th or 5th century), Pali was regarded as the natural language, the root language of all beings.[11]

      Comparable to Ancient Egyptian, Latin or Hebrew in the mystic traditions of the West, Pali recitations were often thought to have a supernatural power (which could be attributed to their meaning, the character of the reciter, or the qualities of the language itself), and in the early strata of Buddhist literature we can already see Pali dhāraṇīs used as charms, e.g. against the bite of snakes. Many people in Theravada cultures still believe that taking a vow in Pali has a special significance, and, as one example of the supernatural power assigned to chanting in the language, the recitation of the vows of Aṅgulimāla are believed to alleviate the pain of childbirth in Sri Lanka. In Thailand, the chanting of a portion of the Abhidhammapiṭaka is believed to be beneficial to the recently departed, and this ceremony routinely occupies as much as seven working days. Interestingly, there is nothing in the latter text that relates to this subject, and the origins of the custom are unclear.

      [edit] Phonology
      This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

      With regard to its phonology, R.C. Childers compared Pali to Italian: "Like Italian, Pali is at once flowing and sonorous: it is a characteristic of both languages that nearly every word ends in a vowel, and that all harsh conjunctions are softened down by assimilation, elision, or crasis, while on the other hand both lend themselves easily to the expression of sublime and vigorous thought."[12]

      [edit] Vowels
      Height Backness
      Front Central Back
      High i [i]
      ī [iː]
      u [u]
      ū [uː]

      Mid e [e], [eː] a [ɐ] o [o], [oː]
      Low ā [aː]

      Long and short vowels are only contrastive in open syllables; in closed syllables, all vowels are always short. Short and long e and o are in complementary distribution: the short variants occur only in closed syllables, the long variants occur only in open syllables. Short and long e and o are therefore not distinct phonemes.

      A sound called anusvāra (Skt.; Pali: nigghahita), represented by the letter ṁ (ISO 15919) or ṃ (ALA-LC) in romanization, and by a raised dot in most traditional alphabets, originally marked the fact that the preceding vowel was nasalized. That is, aṁ, iṁ and uṁ represented [ã], [ĩ] and [ũ]. In many traditional pronunciations, however, the anusvāra is pronounced more strongly, like the velar nasal [ŋ], so that these sounds are pronounced instead [ãŋ], [ĩŋ] and [ũŋ]. However pronounced, ṁ never follows a long vowel; ā, ī and ū are converted to the corresponding short vowels when ṁ is added to a stem ending in a long vowel, e.g. kathā + ṁ becomes kathaṁ, not *kathāṁ, devī + ṁ becomes deviṁ, not *devīṁ.

      [edit] Consonants
      The table below lists the consonants of Pali. In bold is the letter in traditional romanisation, in brackets is its pronunciation in the IPA.

      Place of articulation Manner of articulation
      Stops Approximants Fricatives
      Voiceless Voiced Non-laterals Laterals
      Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated Nasal Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated
      Velars k [k] kh [kʰ] g [ɡ] gh [ɡʱ] ṅ [ŋ]
      Palatals c [tʃ] ch[tʃʰ] j [dʒ] jh [dʒʱ] ñ [ɲ] y [j]
      Retroflex ṭ [ʈ] ṭh [ʈʰ] ḍ [ɖ] ḍh [ɖʱ] ṇ [ɳ] r[ɻ] ḷ [ɭ] ḷh [ɭʱ]
      Dentals t [t̪] th [t̪ʰ] d [d̪] dh [d̪ʱ] n [n̪]
      Alveolars l [l] s [s]
      Bilabials p [p] ph [pʰ] b [b] bh [bʱ] m [m]
      Labiodentals v [ʋ]
      Glottals h [h]

      The sounds listed above, except for ṅ, ḷ and ḷh are distinct phonemes in Pali. ṅ only occurs before velar stops. ḷ and ḷh are allophones of ḍ and ḍh when they occur singly between vowels.

      [edit] Morphology
      Pali is a highly inflected language, in which almost every word contains, besides the root conveying the basic meaning, one or more affixes (usually suffixes) which modify the meaning in some way. Nouns are inflected for gender, number, and case; verbal inflections convey information about person, number, tense and mood.

      [edit] Nominal inflection
      Pali nouns inflect for three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and two numbers (singular, and plural). The nouns also, in principle, display eight cases: nominative or paccatta case, vocative, accusative or upayoga case, instrumental or karaṇa case, dative or sampadāna case, ablative, genitive or sāmin case, and locative or bhumma case; however, in many instances, two or more of these cases are identical in form; this is especially true of the genitive and dative cases.

      [edit] a-stems
      a-stems, whose uninflected stem ends in short a (/ə/), are either masculine or neuter. The masculine and neuter forms differ only in the nominative, vocative, and accusative cases.

      Masculine (loka- "world") Neuter (yāna- "carriage")
      Singular Plural Singular Plural
      Nominative loko lokā yānaṁ yānāni
      Vocative loka
      Accusative lokaṁ loke
      Instrumental lokena lokehi yānena yānehi
      Ablative lokā (lokamhā, lokasmā; lokato) yānā (yānamhā, yānasmā; yānato)
      Dative lokassa (lokāya) lokānaṁ yānassa (yānāya) yānānaṁ
      Genitive lokassa yānassa
      Locative loke (lokasmiṁ) lokesu yāne (yānasmiṁ) yānesu

      [edit] ā-stems
      Nouns ending in ā (/aː/) are almost always feminine.

      Feminine (kathā- "story")
      Singular Plural
      Nominative kathā kathāyo
      Vocative kathe
      Accusative kathaṁ
      Instrumental kathāya kathāhi
      Ablative
      Dative kathānaṁ
      Genitive
      Locative kathāya, kathāyaṁ kathāsu

      [edit] i-stems and u-stems
      i-stems and u-stems are either masculine or neuter. The masculine and neuter forms differ only in the nominative and accusative cases. The vocative has the same form as the nominative.

      Masculine (isi- "seer") Neuter (akkhi- "fire")
      Singular Plural Singular Plural
      Nominative isi isayo, isī akkhi, akkhiṁ akkhī, akkhīni
      Vocative
      Accusative isiṁ
      Instrumental isinā isihi, isīhi akkhinā akkhihi, akkhīhi
      Ablative isinā, isito akkhinā, akkhito
      Dative isino isinaṁ, isīnaṁ akkhino akkhinaṁ, akkhīnaṁ
      Genitive isissa, isino akkhissa, akkhino
      Locative isismiṁ isisu, isīsu akkhismiṁ akkhisu, akkhīsu
      Masculine (bhikkhu- "monk") Neuter (cakkhu- "eye")
      Singular Plural Singular Plural
      Nominative bhikkhu bhikkhavo, bhikkhū cakkhu, cakkhuṁ cakkhūni
      Vocative
      Accusative bhikkhuṁ
      Instrumental bhikkhunā bhikkhūhi cakkhunā cakkhūhi
      Ablative
      Dative bhikkhuno bhikkhūnaṁ cakkhuno cakkhūnaṁ
      Genitive bhikkhussa, bhikkhuno bhikkhūnaṁ, bhikkhunnaṁ cakkhussa, cakkhuno cakkhūnaṁ, cakkhunnaṁ
      Locative bhikkhusmiṁ bhikkhūsu cakkhusmiṁ cakkhūsu

      Comment


      • #4
        Angulimala
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        This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Please improve this article if you can. (May 2007)
        Venerable Angulimala
        Angulimala chases Gautama Buddha
        Religious career
        Teacher Buddha

        Angulimala (Pāli: "garland of fingers") is an important early figure in Buddhism, particularly within the Theravada school. Depicted in the suttas as a ruthless killer who is redeemed by conversion to Buddhism, his story is seen as an example of the redemptive power of the Buddha's teaching and the universal human potential for spiritual progress.

        Contents
        [hide]
        1 Textual Sources
        2 The story
        2.1 Early life
        2.2 Life as a highway murderer
        2.3 Meeting the Buddha
        2.4 Angulimala the monk
        3 Meanings and Interpretations
        4 Modern Influences
        5 External links
        6 References


        [edit] Textual Sources
        Two texts in the Pali canon concern themselves with Angulimala's initial encounter with the Buddha and his conversion. The first is the Theragatha, verses 866-91, and the second is the Angulimala Sutta in the Majjhima Nikaya. Both offer a fairly short description of Angulimala's encounter with the Buddha, and omit much of the background information later incorporated into the story (such as Angulimala being placed under an oath by a jealous teacher). These later additions- which appear in the sutta commentaries attributed to Buddhaghosa and Dhammapala (the Majjhima Nikaya commentary known as the Papancasudani (Ps) and the Therigatha commentary Paramattha-dipani (Pad), respectively)- may represent attempts by later commentators to "rehabilitate" the character of Angulimala- making him appear as a fundamentally good human being entrapped by circumstance, rather than as a vicious killer. The sutta texts themselves do not provide for any motive for Angulimala's actions, other than pure sadism.

        [edit] The story
        [edit] Early life
        According to the sutta and commentarial texts, omens seen at the time of Angulimala's birth (the flashing of weapons in the city, and the appearance of the 'constellation of thieves' in the sky) indicated that Angulimala would become a robber. Angulimala's father, the Brahmin chaplain to the king of Kosala, named him Ahimsaka ("harmless" - derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word Ahimsa), as an attempt to deter the dark fate predicted at his birth (Pad indicates that he was initially named Himsaka ("harmful"), but that the name was later changed).

        Angulimala was sent to Taxila to study under a well-known Brahmin guru. There he excelled in his studies and became the teachers' favourite student, enjoying special privileges in his teachers' house. However, the other students grew jealous of Ahimsaka's speedy progress and sought to turn his master against him. To that end, they made it seem as though Ahimsaka had seduced the master's wife and boasted that he was wiser than the guru. Unwilling or unable to attack Ahimsaka directly (Pad states that Ahimsaka was as "strong as seven elephants", while Ps states that the teacher worried that his business would suffer if he was found to have murdered a student), the teacher said that Ahimsaka's training was complete, but that he must provide the traditional final gift offered to a guru before the teacher would grant his approval. As his payment, the teacher demanded 1,000 fingers, each taken from a different victim, thinking that Angulimala would be killed in the course of seeking this grisly prize (Pad states that Angulimala was required to fetch 1,000 fingers from right hands, seemingly unaware that this could be achieved by killing 200 people. Ps states, even more strangely, that he was told to "kill a thousand legs", and gathered fingers only as an aid to keeping an accurate count).

        Sources indicate that one of his motivations may have been the unquestioning obedience to the guru - an echo of the higher principles governing his earlier life. But tradition reports that it was probably his innate disposition to violence. In his previous life, he was a Yakkha - a man-eating spirit with superhuman strength. The guru's instructions may have also aroused a strange attraction for killing, or could be seen as a challenge to his manly prowess. It was reported that in all his past lives, two traits were prominent: his physical strength and his lack of compassion.

        It is also suggested that he was in fact cast out of his Guru's house, branding him an outcast among Brahmins. Being unable to find acceptance anywhere, he turned to brigandry, murdering pilgrims and traders passing through the wilderness, and collecting a finger each from their right hands.

        As to the giving of goodbye gifts, this was customary in ancient India. We find an example in the Book of Pausya (Pausyaparvan, Mbh.1,3) of the Vedic epic Mahábháratha. Here the teacher sends his disciple Uttanka away after Uttanka has proven himself worthy of being trustworthy and in the possession of all the Vedic and Dharmashastric teachings. Uttanka says to his teacher: "What can I do for you that pleases you (kim te priyam karaváni), because thus it is said: Whoever answers without (being in agreement with) the Dharma, and whoever asks without (being in agreement with) the Dharma (the Law in the literal sense of the word), either occurs: one dies or one attracts animosity." Friedrich Wilhelm (Prüfung und Initiation im Buche Pausya und in der Biographie des Náropa, Wiesbaden 1965, p. 11) maintains that similar phraseology already occurs in the "Book of Manu" (II,111) and in the "Institutes of Vishnu". I.e., taking leave of one's teacher and promising to do whatever this teacher asks of you brings, according tot the Vedic teachings, enlightenment or similar attainment. It is therefore not unusual that Angulimála did his teacher's horrible biding, although being an good and kind person at heart, in the knowledge that in the end he would reap the highest attainment.

        [edit] Life as a highway murderer
        Ahimsaka became a highwayman, killing travelers who passed through the forest. When the people of the kingdom began to avoid the roads, he entered the villages and dragged people from their homes. He never took clothes or jewels from his victims, only fingers. To keep count of the number of victims that he had taken, he strung them on a thread and hung them on a tree. However because birds began to eat the flesh from the fingers, he started to wear them around his neck as a garland. Thus he came to be known as Angulimala ("garland (or necklace) of fingers").

        [edit] Meeting the Buddha
        Villagers petitioned the king of Kosala, who vowed to hunt down Angulimala. Fearing for her son's life, Angulimala's mother set out to find him and warn him of the king's intent. The Buddha perceived with his "divine eye" (faculty of clairvoyance) that Angulimala had slain 999 victims, and was desperately seeking a thousandth. If the Buddha encountered Angulimala that day, he would become a monk and subsequently attain Nirvana. If Angulimala encountered his mother instead, he would slay her as his thousandth victim and fall into hell for millennia as a matricide.

        The Buddha set off to intercept Angulimala, despite being warned by the people of the village in which he was staying. On the road through the forest of Kosala, Angulimala first saw his mother who came to warn him of the impending arrival of the kings' army. Angulimala, after some deliberation, decided to make her his 1000th victim. But then when Buddha also arrived, he chose to kill him instead. He drew his sword, and started running towards the Buddha. But although Angulimala was running as fast as he could, he couldn't catch up with the Buddha who was walking calmly. "The Blessed One willed a feat of psychic power such that Angulimala, though running with all his might, could not catch up with the Blessed One walking at normal pace" (MN 86, translation from Thanissaro Bhikku). This bewildered Angulimala so much that he called to the Buddha to stop. The Buddha said that he himself had already stopped, and that it was Angulimala who should stop. Angulimala asked for further explanation, after which the Buddha said that he had stopped harming living beings, and that Angulimala was still harming and hurting living beings. After hearing this, Angulimala changed his ways, vowed to cease his life as a brigand and joined the Buddhist order.

        [edit] Angulimala the monk
        Later, King Pasenadi (the king of Kosala) set out to find and kill Angulimala. He stopped first to pay a visit to the Buddha and his followers at the monastery where they dwelled. He explained to the Buddha his purpose, and the Buddha asked how the king would respond if he were to discover that Angulimala had given up the life of a highwayman and become a monk. The king said that he would salute him and offer to provide for him in his monastic vocation. The Buddha then revealed that Angulimala sat only a few feet away, his hair and beard shaven off, a member of the Buddhist order. The king, astounded, offered to donate robe materials to Angulimala, and then returned to his palace.

        Later, Angulimala came across a young woman undergoing a difficult labor. He went to the Buddha and asked him what he could do to ease her pain. The Buddha told Angulimala to go to the woman and say:

        'Sister, since I was born I do not recall intentionally killing a living being. Through this truth may there be wellbeing for you, wellbeing for your fetus.'

        Angulimala pointed out that it would be untrue for him to say this. The Buddha offered this revised stanza:

        'Sister, since I was born with the noble birth (became a monk), I do not recall intentionally killing a living being. Through this truth may there be wellbeing for you, wellbeing for your fetus.' The Buddha was making a word-play here on the word "born" to support Angulimala, who was suffering from severe remorse which was badly obstructing his meditation, of his renewed commitment to harmlessness since becoming a monk.

        After Angulimala delivered this benediction, the woman safely gave birth to her child. This verse, commonly called the Angulimala paritta, continues to be recited at the blessings of houses or pregnant women in Theravada countries.

        This helped Angulimala focus his mind on his basic meditation subject. Before, there would always appear in his mind's eye, the place in the jungle where he had slain so many people. After performing the Act of Truth, he was seen to bring safety to people and people started to approach him and provide him with almsfood.

        At last, his earlier name Ahimsaka fully befitted him. Most of the people had gained full confidence in his inner transformation and there was no lack of support for him.

        However a resentful few could not forget that he was responsible for the deaths of their loved ones. Unable to win revenge through the law, they took matters into their own hands. With sticks and stones, they attacked him as he walked for alms.

        With a bleeding head, torn outer robe and a broken alms bowl, Angulimala managed to return to the monastery. The Buddha encouraged Angulimala to bear his torment with equanimity; he indicated that Angulimala was experiencing the fruits of the karma that would otherwise have condemned him to hell. This illustrates the Buddhist belief that while the effects of karma are inescapable, the form that they take and the schedule on which they occur can be modified by later actions—in this case, Angulimala experienced physical suffering during the course of his last life, rather than experiencing torment in another birth for a much longer period of time.

        Being an arahant, Angulimala remained firm and invulnerable in mind and heart. But his body, the symbol and fruit of previous kamma was still exposed to the effects of his former evil deeds. As an arahant, he needed no words of consolation, but a reminder of the kammic concatenation of cause and effect, which still has to be endured until the end.

        When he entered Sāvatthi for alms, he was attacked by the mob, but on the admonition of the Buddha, endured their wrath as penance for his former misdeeds.

        [edit] Meanings and Interpretations
        To the Theravada and Mahayana, Angulimala's story serves as an example that even the worst of people can undo the faults in their beings and return to the right path. The Theosophical viewpoint on this story is similar, and also includes that Karma must be repaid, but it is up to the individual as to how they react to their karma that will determine the change in their character. Even though Angulimala had repented and was enlightened, he still had to pay the karma of killing so many. He was peaceful and accepted what was done, and was therefore liberated from the Wheel of Rebirth.

        Angulimala's story also illustrates the Buddhist belief that individuals can be reformed more readily through compassion than through punishment. As Angulimala says, "Some prisoners are tamed with punishment of a stick, or a hook or a whip. I was tamed without a stick or a weapon. I was tamed by the kind words of the Compassionate Buddha."

        Richard F. Gombrich, in his paper Who was Angulimala?, has postulated that the story of Angulimala may represent an encounter between the Buddha and a follower of an early form of Saivite or Shakti tantra. Gombrich reaches this conclusion on the basis of a number of inconsistencies in the sutta text that indicate possible corruption (particularly the failure of the verses in the Theragatha to conform to accepted Pāli metrical schemes), and the fairly weak explanations for Angulimala's behaviour provided by the commentators. He notes that there are several other references in the early Pāli canon that seem to indicate the presence of devotees of Siva, Kali, and other divinities associated with sanguinary tantric practices, and that Angulimala's behaviour would not be inconsistent with certain violent practices that were observed in India by Thuggee-like transgressive cults into recent times. If Gombrich's thesis could be conclusively proven, it would establish the Angulimala Sutta as likely being the earliest known documentation of tantric practices in South Asia, about which very little is known before the 7th century CE.

        [edit] Modern Influences
        In 1985, the British-born Theravada monk Venerable Ajahn Khemadhammo Mahathera founded ANGULIMALA: The Buddhist Prison Chaplaincy in England. It has been recognized by the British government as the official representative of the Buddhist religion in all matters concerning the British prison system, and provides chaplains, counseling services, and instruction in Buddhism and meditation to prisoners throughout England, Wales, and Scotland.

        In 2003, Thai director Suthep Tannirat attempted to release a film entitled Ongkulimal (the Thai pronunciation of Angulimala) that re-told the story of the famous monk. Conservative Buddhist organizations in Thailand launched a protest, claiming that the movie distorted Buddhist teachings, and introduced Hindu and theistic influences not found in the source material. The Thai film censorship board rejected appeals to ban the film, but insisted that the director cut some violent material, and re-title the film to distance it further from its scriptural sources. Interestingly, what seemed to be most offensive to many was the fact that the director omitted commentarial information that depicted Angulimala as a hapless victim of the actions of others, and instead portrayed him (as the sutta does) as engaging in his violent behaviour of his own free choice.

        In 2006, peace activist Satish Kumar retold the story of Angulimala in his short book, The Buddha and the Terrorist.










        Langues > Indo-Européen > Indo-Iranien > Indo-Aryen > Pâli


        Langue Indo-Européenne de la famille Indo-Aryenne parlée autrefois en Inde et utilisée encore comme langue liturgique dans le bouddhisme Theravâda.
        C'est un Prâkrit proche du Sanskrit et remontant peut-être au IIIème siècle avant notre ère. D'après la tradition, il était utilisé dans le Magadha à l'époque du Bouddha, dont elle aurait été la langue.
        En fait, celle que parlait le Bouddha était vraisemblablement un autre prâkrit, l'Ardhamagadhi (ou « moyen magadhi ») et non le Pâli ; on fait aussi dériver le Pâli de la Paisacî (prâkrit du nord-est indien, proprement la « langue des démons » encore parlée au Cachemire). En réalité, il s'avère que le Pâli est assez éloigné de l'Ardhamagadhi et qu'il est plus proche des dialectes occidentaux. C'est surtout une langue littéraire qui a emprunté à d'autres langues et s'est constituée de manière plus ou moins artificielle au cours du temps, à partir, sans doute, d'une ou plusieurs langues vernaculaires.
        Le Pâli s'est principalement écrit en Devanagari et a servi à noter les textes de la doctrine bouddhiste Theravâda. On l'a utilisée, et on l'utilise encore comme langue cultuelle bouddhiste, au Sri Lâka, en Birmanie, au Laos, en Thaïlande et au Cambodge. Son statut de langue liturgique l'a rendu, à l'instar du Sanskrit, figée et normalisée. C'est donc un prâkrit moyen indien qui a accédé fortuitement au rang de langue littéraire et culturelle avant les autres, sans pour autant donner naissance à un idiome néo-indien.


        Exemple
        Traduction Le mental est l'avant coureur des conditions, le mental en est le chef, et les conditions sont façonnées par le mental. Si, avec un mental impur, quelqu'un parle ou agit, alors la douleur le suit comme la roue suit le sabot du bœuf



        May all beings be free, without suffering, without dogmatism and in absolute non violence for every beings such as animals, humans, ghosts, hungry ghosts (petas), war beings (jealous beings) dogmatic beings, attached 2 senses/body/sensual /pleasure and pain/emotional joy and suffering beings, hell beingss ,not seeing mystics beings, not looking 4 eternity but impermanence beings, not deeply inquiring the validity or not of budist emptiness of independant existence and dionysiac socratic theories of essence/ideas, not understanding self beings





        www.petatv.com

        Comment


        • #5
          no ones gonna read all that shit on a computer, the last time i read a book on the internet i regretted it because it burned my eyeballs out
          "did you ask me to consider dick with you??" blooming tianshi lotus

          Comment


          • #6
            i did, didnt i? but i guess some lamas have better students...

            Comment

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